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40th Anniversary of the End of the Vietnam War

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Vietnam could rise from these ashes. Currently, it started the new century Vietnam has joined as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian National, and indeed is the most powerful in the Southeast Asian economy

The April 30, 1975 was terminated the Vietnam War. In next days is being commemorating the 40th anniversary of the end of the heroic Vietnamese people's struggle for freedom and the defense of its sovereignty.

According to the historical account, the Vietnam War began with the Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which he stated that Vietnamese boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox. From that President Lyndon Johnson could manage the authorization of the United States Congress for shipment and use of US military forces in Vietnam to fight communist aggression alleged.

But in reality, the war in Vietnam, also known as the Second Indochina War was only a hot new phase in the long history of conflict that spanned over 30 years in the Indochina peninsula. In fact the causes of the onset of the Vietnam War must be sought in the Vietnam War, this conflict that began in late 1946 between the Vietnamese people who was pushing for recognition of its independence and the French empire was trying to reimpose its authority Colonial on that. This conflict ends with the Vietnamese victory at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954 and subsequent Geneva peace talks in July of that year. It was in these agreements that transient division of Vietnamese territory is established by the 17th parallel resulting in a North Vietnam (or DRV) and South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam). Transient division becomes a de facto division for over 20 years by the refusal of the United States to sign and ratify the agreements reached in Geneva.

Almost 20 years after the Geneva talks, the United States was forced by the weight of reality to turn to sit on the bargaining table now in Paris to find a diplomatic solution to this conflict. So the Paris peace accords were signed in January 1973. United States signed this death certificate mainly due to its lack of vision on the holistic treatment of the situation in Vietnam, not understanding just struggling for a military solution, but relegating neglecting diplomatic solution and popular support. The Tet operation and the slaughter of My Lai in 1968 showed American leaders not only the unwavering will of the Vietnamese people but also the very loss of popular support.

So the rapprochement between the United States and the People's Republic of China in the years 1971-1972 while the peace negotiations between the US and Vietnam were taking place, but mainly with the oil crisis of late 1973 the support of US forces in Vietnamese territory it is raised unfeasible. However the war continued a few years as these agreements involved the end of the US military presence, but not its financial and logistical assistance to the South Vietnamese forces. It was in this context that the United States withdrew from Vietnam, as well as much of the Eastern Asia. For mid financial assistance to several military governments in the region it is drastically reduced. And in 1977 the Organization disarms the Treaty of Southeast Asia collective defense organization created in late 1954 after the end of the First Indochina War.

With the victory of the North Vietnamese forces ends the incidence and US interference in the affairs of the Vietnamese people and can finally achieve the reunification of the country and the people in one Vietnam. After the war and reunited the country, the new state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam could start with reconstruction and dealing with the terrible legacy of the war. Approximately more than 8 million tons of bombs were dropped during the confrontation, with many millions of ground explosives. About 75 million liters of herbicides and chemical defoliants such as Agent Orange and Agent Blue were sprayed on Vietnamese territory. It is estimated that there were about 3 to 5 million military casualties as civilians by direct and indirect results of the war, nearly 4 million disabled or sick for explosives and chemicals used people. It is estimated that over 25% of the Vietnamese territory was affected by explosive and polluted by chemicals, and consequent destruction of infrastructure, rice fields and forests.

However, Vietnam could rise from these ashes. Since the implementation of Doi Moi reforms of the mid 1980s, began one of the processes of growth and sustainable economic development in recent history, with growth rates of 6-9% annually. Currently, it started the new century Vietnam has joined as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian National, and indeed is the most powerful in the Southeast Asian economy.

As a final note, it's worth mentioning that in this struggle the people of Vietnam was not alone. Among the support received internationally, is the state and people of Argentina. The Argentine government established diplomatic relations with Vietnam before the end of the war. Under President Arturo Frondizi (May 1958-March 1962) Argentina established diplomatic relations with South Vietnam on 19 September 1959. But the same were reformulated during President Hector Campora (May-July 1973). And during the third presidency of Juan Domingo Perón (October 1973-July 1974) they were discontinued earlier and established diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on October 15, 1973, in expression of his Third Position. Argentina was one of the first countries in Latin America to recognize the new state, not in 1975 ended the military confrontation, but immediately after the signing of the Paris agreements.

The Argentine State was no stranger to the events that were taking place in Vietnam, especially sensitive for the needs of the Vietnamese people of food and medicine. In April 1968 it sent 20,000 doses of anti-choleric to South Vietnam for the care of people in areas affected by war vaccines. And the following month sent 5,000 tons of wheat. Several political groups, in which highlights the Communist Party, were active. In the bond of brotherhood between the Communist Party of Argentina and Vietnam, which forged friendship between Miguel Contreras and Ho Chi Minh goes back during the V Congress of the Socialist International held in Moscow in 1924, party leaders visited North Vietnam to have an unbiased view of the events of the war. They also participated in solidarity campaigns with the Vietnamese people.

And Argentina society was also sensitive to developments in that region. In 1965 the Argentine Movement Assistance Vietnam (MAVIET), which carried out a charitable work, morally and materially, with the heroic Vietnamese people is created. This was then recycled in 1967 in Argentina Solidarity Movement with Vietnam (SAV), who came to coordinate and centralize various initiatives in various cities (Capital Federal, Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Cordoba, Mendoza). Among these initiatives a series of publications disseminate the events of the war took place.

It also organized collections for drug donations. In 1968 they raised 12 million pesos and 208 kilos of drugs were sent mainly quinine. In the year 1970-71 was raised 19 million pesos and sent more than a ton of quinine. The drugs were delivered through the mediation of the International Red Cross. Also pressed the government to discontinue relations with South Vietnam, and even sent a petition with 67 517 accessions to the US Embassy in Buenos Aires to be delivered to President Nixon demanding an end to the war.

traslation: Belén Zapata