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Chronicle of space travel: From the Cold War to Rosetta

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Technology
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The Rosetta mission, in honor of the Egyptian stele that provided the key to understanding the hieroglyphics, landed on the 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet to free Philae, a module that collected data of the solar system

Einstein said, "Imagination can take you wherever" a mix of unlimited imagination and exploitation of the appalling ability of a human being to prevail before another brought man into space in the framework of the Cold War. The man never landed on the moon but a space probe was able to land on a comet, Rosetta star of the new space age.

The hidden life and the universe began to dispute between the United States and the former Soviet Union, powers deployed its power adding to an arms spiral that ended with the missile crisis in Cuba in October 1962, bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. Along science fiction became reality and the man left the land to take a big step to more repeat neck. Like a horse race, head to head, red bear and eagle rods and stars gave vent to the "space race". On April 12, 1961 Lieutenant of the Air Force of the USSR Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin, held at the Vostok spacecraft's first manned space flight in history, "Hopefully fly and return alive!" Said the general engineer Sergey Korolyov after takeoff from the carrier rocket. Gagarin returned after spending 108 minutes in space history, seeing first the earth from 300 miles high exclaimed: "How beautiful!".

And then flatly continued reading the instructions of the equipment. The first piece was at stake and the board was winning the Russians, so the Americans redoubled the bet in a feat that remains a mystery to this day. 1969 ran and American Neil Armstrong, EE M. Collins and Aldrin landed on the Moon. Now NASA beat the Russians in the space race. The Apollo program was launched eight years earlier in April '61, during the Cold War, by President Kennedy in response to the Russian victory. Apollo 11 module was photographed and in existing footage sees American astronauts travel part of the lunar surface, "must be very careful to tread. Whenever I do feel very soft", described Armstrong during the ride. Four days later the three travelers reached a perfect landing in the waters of the Pacific Ocean, thus ending the mission and since then no one stepping back our natural satellite.

The technology jumped to the XXI century music took our small devices, we activate mechanisms using our voice but the man never landed on the moon. But this detail did not stop the human curiosity to know more about our mysterious space, "I have no special talents, I am only passionately curious" said the German physicist father of the theory of relativity. The 12th of this month we witnessed a new feat: Rosetta, in honor of the rock or Egyptian stele that provided the key to understanding the hieroglyphics, landed on the 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet to free Philae a module that has the task of collecting information Solar System, why not help us to know in detail the origin of life on Earth.

The probe of the European Space Agency was launched on March 2, 2004, he traveled over 6,200 million kilometers at an estimated 55,000 km / h to reach target speed. After a complex maneuver the heavy and expensive equipment, about 3000kg and 10 million euros investment, became the first unmanned mission to land and transmit images from a celestial body moving. Philae refers to the ancient Egyptian city of the same name, now submerged, where there was a complementary obelisk in deciphering the text of the Rosetta stone; Today is the module that has the size of a refrigerator.

The choice of the comet was not random, experts reported that no step 67P very close to the sun since its inception thereby maintaining its original composition, like blocks planets that formed four billion years ago, allowing through field experiment to know what were the first organic molecules that came to our planet and found suitable conditions for life as we know it.

With the ambitious project Rosetta ESA action plan your next destination: Mercury. Meanwhile with less media luck Japanese probe Hayabusa (Peregrine) also made landmark landing on an asteroid and earth bringing samples.

Philae bounced a few times before falling into a very different shaded place, which was chosen, which prevented the solar panels receive enough light to ensure continuous operation, and an inclined and unstable, since the anchor was not activated.

Philae went into a deep sleep when the supply of its internal batteries ran out.

Despite the setbacks, scientists agree that the rebound of the capsule and the final place where he perched may actually be beneficial to the results of the mission.

The capsule sampled at various sites during the rebound, allowing study variations in the properties and composition of the comet and in different types of terrain. Initially fell on the flat, dusty surface that had been chosen from the pictures he took Rosetta

This Sunday, November 30, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched into orbit successor, Hayabusa 2, with an autonomous navigation system improved to take her to her assigned asteroid where it plans to land in 2018. Although no longer exists USSR leads alongside America no manned missions sent into space to explore the solar orbit. But in modern times new players gaining ground between exploration of the stars and the universe as evidenced by the ESA, JAXA agencies and by 2017 India will add to its creation Aditya.

Albert Einstein died in Princeton in 1955 at age 76, the Cold War took place between 1953 and 1962, space exploration was initiated by the former USSR with the satellite Sputnik 1, decades later would be an animated drawing to overturn the barriers of our imagination the rout "to infinity and beyond." Einstein born visionary legacy left us the statement of a vital equation: "Logic will get you from point A to B. Imagination will take you anywhere"

Traslation Belén Zapata